Law Creating Criminal Penalties for Public Officials Who Vote When Conflicted


Time to drive a wooden stake through the heart of corruption

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWe who formed are in the process of gathering the signatures of 28,546 registered Alaska voters, as is necessary to place the following proposition Alaska’s 2016 ballot for voter adoption.

Be it enacted by the People of the State of Alaska; Sec. 11.56.130. is repealed and reenacted to read:

Sec. 11.56.130. Presumptive political bribery.

(a)   It is a class A felony for public officials to regulate or legislate competitive advantages for, or direct appropriations to themselves, their business partners, their clients, immediate family, past, present, or sought-after employers or contributors, including contributors to independent expenditure campaigns intended to increase the probability of their election.

(b)   It is a class A felony to receive an appropriation, or secure a competitive advantage over competition for profit through regulation or statute by inducing public officials to violate (a) of this section.

(c)   Presumptive political bribery shall be narrowly construed. Actions affecting legislation and/or regulations which similarly impact a broad spectrum of population, and have relatively minor fiscal impacts incidental only to implementation, are exempt. Members of deliberative bodies may absolve themselves of potential conflict by entering their conflict into the record and refraining from voting.

(d)  For purposes of applying AS 12.10 governing limitations of actions, in a prosecution under AS 11.56.130, the statute of limitations begins to run with the violation and continues for ten years.


Here is why it works:

The same Chief Justice Roberts that gave corporations  and individuals the right to  spend as much as they wish on campaigns also affirmed the right of each state to make it a crime for an individual or a corporation to gain access to the public purse with the assistance of those they’ve helped elect. See Nevada Commission on Ethics v. Carrigan. The Roberts Court affirmed the conviction of elected official, (Carrigan), for violation of a Nevada statute when, at the request of Carrigan’s former campaign manager, Carrigan assisted in the securing of a gaming permit for the best friend of his former campaign manager. It is unlikely that Carrigan would have done the same for just anybody who happened to ask. Bottom line, It was the illegal pay to play good-old-boy system at work. State prosecutors cannot prosecute those who provide special treatment for their contributors unless there is a state law that says they can.

Those on the Right and the Left wishing to combat political corruption need to stop talking past each other and pay more attention to what Chief Justice Roberts has really been saying. This time, in the more recent ruling McCutcheon v. Federal Election Commission, Chief Justice Roberts added the following comment:

  • “The government has a strong interest, no less critical to our democratic system, in combating corruption and its appearance,” Roberts wrote. “We have, however, held that this interest must be limited to a specific kind of corruption quid pro quo corruption in order to ensure that the government’s efforts do not have the effect of restricting the First Amendment right of citizens to choose who shall govern them.”

In other words, stop trying to control the breadth and volume of other people’s speech and focus on the billion dollar favors the loudest voices often extract in exchange for their million dollar speech. Criminalize the — quid pro quo – and the Court will uphold your statute.

What corporation would spend a dime on a campaign if it didn’t buy access to the public purse?

In a unanimous 9-0 decision, the Roberts Court upheld a Nevada statute, Nevada Commission on Ethics v. Carrigan, requiring public officials to recuse themselves from voting on, or advocating the passage or failure of; quoting from the Nevada statutes, “a matter with respect to which the independence of judgment of a reasonable person in his situation would be materially affected by,” inter alia, “[h]is commitment in a private capacity to the interests of others.”

The Roberts Court rejected arguments that the Nevada statute is either too broad and/or too vague and that therefore it is unconstitutional. The Roberts Court also rejected arguments that a legislators voting privilege is an expression of a legislators freely expressed opinion and therefore a form of protected speech.

What sets Nevada’s statute apart from ethics laws in most states is that most states require prosecutors to prove the meaning of a wink and a nod. A winning defense can be as simple as “That contribution I got from those people had no bearing on my decision to appropriate a million bucks to them.” In the absence of a video with audio record of a promise made in exchange for cash received, prosecutors seldom touch it. Nevada’s statute reduces the necessary evidence to a paper trail. A copy of a legislator’s reported contributions and voting record can be sufficient to win a conviction.

In Skilling v. United States, the Roberts Court narrowed but preserved the use of a federal statute commonly referred to as “the Honest Services Act.” So called because it simply says the public is entitled to honest services from public officials, leaving it to judges and juries to be the judge of what constitutes dishonest services. Violation of the Honest Services Act is a felony. When Enron collapsed, prosecutors attempted to apply the Honest Services Act to Jeffery Skilling’s dishonest dealings with Enron’s stockholders. Many Court watchers expected the Court to declare the Act to be unconstitutionally vague but they did not. They clarified that its use was restricted to public corruption, not private institutions such as Enron.

Justice Roberts’ added the word “corruption,” to his reference to “quid pro quo,” implying that a stronger criminal act is the solution, not more ethical or reporting requirements. The U.S. Senate and U.S. House have their own reporting requirements and ethics statutes which exempt members of both houses from State reporting and ethics requirements. However, as former House Majority Leader Tom Delay learned in Texas, members of Congress are not exempt from the criminal statutes of their home states. One of Tom Delay’s money raising schemes resembled a Texas statutory definition of money laundering. He was indicted, convicted, and is to this day locked in a series of appeals and reversals.

The moral of this story: Any state that chooses to define the act of using one’s public office to provide themselves, their families, employers, partners, contributors and/or issue ad supporters with access to the public purse or a leg up on their competition as felony bribery can bring a rapid end to the practice.

What corporation or lobbyist would spend a dime on contributions or issue adds if it didn’t buy them an unfair advantage or access to the public purse?

The next hurdle comes in the form of reluctant legislators whose campaigns are, in every state in the nation, almost entirely dependent on contributions from the beneficiaries of their legislation.

Solution: twenty-three states have the option of creating law by initiative. In Alaska, the Division of Elections is required to describe a proposed initiative “as accurately as possible,” in fifty words or less.

By keeping the ballot proposition as simple as possible, we succeeded in making it difficult for an unenthusiastic Lieutenant Governor, (Secretary of State in most states) to find ways to confuse voters with unflattering descriptions of the proposal. After some negotiation it was agreed that, if the necessary signatures are collected, our proposition will be described as follows on the 2016 ballot.

An Act Creating Criminal Penalties for Public Officials

This act would make it a Class A felony for a public official to regulate or legislate competitive advantages for, or direct appropriations to, themselves, their family, their business partners, and certain others. This act would also make it a Class A felony to profit by inducing public officials to commit such acts. The bill would construe “presumptive political bribery” narrowly. Minor fiscal impacts would not be criminalized. There is a ten year statute of limitations for prosecutions under the bill.

The lack of in-depth definition leaves much to the discretion of judges and juries which may scare an otherwise reluctant Legislature into a compromise. The makers of the proposed petition have therefore drafted a 2,757 word alternative. If we collect enough signatures to insure that our petition is destined for the ballot, we will offer to withdraw it if the Alaska Legislature passes our proposed alternative.

The first time a U.S. Senator recuses him or herself from voting while explaining that to vote on the act under consideration would make him or her a criminal in their home state, will make national headlines. Citizens will mount initiatives in other states. If a handful of states pass similar legislation those Senators forced to forgo the wink and smile language of favor trading will soon force all of congress to abide by the same.

What about “Dark Money?” Because this proposed statute creates felony penalties, it is far more likely that suspicious investigators will serve subpoenas to find the source of “Dark Money.” Even those who think they have a deal with the current AG or Governor, the statute of limitations extends beyond their longest possible terms. With a minimum sentence of five years and the clear possibility of discovery; how many people would risk asking for appropriations from those they had secretly helped with their election?

Voters in five western states with populations of a million or less have the option of changing statutes by initiative. Due to their low population, initiatives can be placed on the ballot for less than $200,000 per state. In Alaska, $70,000. For one million dollars we can solve this problem. A constitutional amendment on corporate personhood will require the defeat and replacement of half the U.S. House, half the U.S. Senate and the reversal of control in a majority of state legislatures. For those of us who don’t want to wait fifty to one hundred years for an amendment, this is our best chance to see a relatively corruption free government within your lifetime.

At this time Alaska owns nearly all the subsurface minerals within its borders. If we Alaskans don’t bring a stop to employees of companies voting to advance the interests of their employer, several of Alaska’s largest companies will soon be competing for seats in Alaska’s legislature and the winners will soon be dividing up the assets of this “Owner State” amongst their employers. The only thing standing in the way of fixing this is the lack of the $70,000 we need for paid signature gatherers. If you can help, DONATE NOW!

  • Ray Metcalfe lives in Anchorage, Alaska. Email: Phone 907-344-4514. He is a former member of the Alaska State House, and is the president of an Alaskan government watchdog organization, Citizens for Ethical Government, that was involved in the FBI’s investigation that led to the indictment of US Senator Ted Stevens and bribery related convictions of several lobbyists and legislators. Also see






  1. Thanks for all the hard work Ray.

    Count me in for this important battle in the war for good governance. Forget the old “Throw the bums out” and make the new mantra “Throw the bums in jail!”

  2. A couple of grammatical corrections. Take out the comma after the word “for” and change all semi-colons to commas.

    1. Thanks for the catch, how’s this?

      “Public officials who regulate or legislate competitive advantages for or direct appropriations to themselves, business partners, clients, immediate family, past, present, or sought-after employers or contributors, donors to independent expenditures supporting their election, and persons profiting from inducing public officials to violate this statute, commit a class A felony.”


  3. I am currently running for state senate against the poster boy for SB 21, Peter Micciche, and win or lose, I will do everything in my power to make this initiative bid a success! Please keep me in the loop and instruct me regarding how our time can get engaged with this process.

  4. 17% layoffs of Alaskan workers. Wow, sure am happy the Sb21 survived, imagine what would have happened had we not sold ourselves into slavery. Clink Bishop said he would lead the charge if he was mistaken about his vote. Perhaps it is time for all folks to write, fax or call and ask him when he is going to blow the bugle.

    1. As soon as the signature books are printed we will make an announcement on the website and the Facebook page and the newsletter and mailing list and press releases and…well, we’ll let you know, trust me.

  5. I’m eager to sign the petition. Might be able to get you some signatures but I don’t get around as well as I used to and can’t get as many as I’d like.

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